Arctic sovereignty has long been the subject of intense debate and dispute between Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia and the United States. The outcome of the battle for it could have a significant impact on global security.
Arctic sovereignty has long been the subject of intense debate and dispute between Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia and the United States. Each country claims ownership of part of the Arctic. In accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) countries have ten years to make claims for sovereignty over extended shelf areas. The ten year period begins when each country ratifies the UNCLOS. The deadlines for Norway and Russia have already passed while those of Canada and Denmark are approaching quickly (2013 and 2014 respectively.) While the United States claims sovereignty over parts of the arctic due to its northern territory of Alaska it has yet to ratify UNCLOS.
There have already been disputes for sovereignty over particular areas of the Arctic. Disputed areas include the Northwest Passage, the Beaufort Sea, Hans Island and the North Pole. Canada considers the Northwest Passage to be internal waters which entitles Canada to the right to enact fishing and environmental laws, to enforce taxation and import restrictions. The United States and others consider the Northwest Passage international waters. This would entitle ships to a right of passage and limit Canadian authority over the area.
The Beaufort Sea covers the boundary between the Yukon (in Canada) and Alaska (in the United States.) Canada maintains that sovereignty should be distributed based on extensions of the land border while the United States disagrees. The United States has leased land under the sea that Canada considers to be its own to search for oil. The issue has yet to be resolved but would probably be settled by a tribunal if the United States ratifies UNCLOS.
Denmark and Canada are currently negotiating the division of Hans Island. The island is small and uninhabited but has received significant attention from both governments. The maps originally used in 1967 to determine ownership of the island showed the island to be in Canadian waters but recent satellite imagery has revealed that the boundary between the countries falls directly in the middle of the island. In 1984, 1988, 1995 and 2003 the Danish government planted flags on the island. In 2005 the Canadian defence minister stopped on the island during a trip to the Arctic which resulted in another dispute between the governments.
Perhaps the most intense dispute in the Arctic has been and will be over the North Pole. The North Pole has been claimed by many countries but it is yet to be determined which shelf it is attached to. In 2007 a Russian submarine planted a Russian flag at the seabed of the North Pole and sparked a major international controversy. Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Peter MacKay criticized the Russians for planting the flag as though it entitled them to sovereignty over the North Pole. Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov responded that it was merely a celebration of national accomplishment akin to putting the American flag on the moon. Despite this Russia’s Natural Resources Ministry claims that results from samples taken on the expedition indicate that the North Pole is an extension of Russia’s continental shelf and that Russia is entitled to the vast natural resources that it may hold.
The outcome of the battle for Arctic sovereignty could have a significant impact on global security. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change the shipping industry could begin to use the Arctic as a major shipping route as the ice cap continues to melt. This has consequences for border protection and the rights to charge levees on shipments. Beyond that the Arctic is believed to have vast reserves of natural gas and oil. With the impending deadlines and high economic incentives to gain sovereignty there is little doubt that conflict will arise.
Photo credit: U.S. Geological Survey